Building on the ideas presented in the previous White Paper from CAE-Emirates on the future learning ecosystem for pilot training, a new white paper has been created which presents ideas and plans on how Simulation for Experiential Training (SET) can be used as an enabler for Evidence-Based Training (EBT). Entitled "Simulation for Experiential Training as an Enabler for Evidence-Based Training,” this white paper from Emirates and CAE was developed by Dr. Nicklas Dahlstrom: Human Factors Manager at Emirates, Captain Mark Cameron: Former A380 Pilot/CRMI at Emirates, and Dr. Richard Kennedy: Head of Learning Science at CAE.
Here is a summary of their findings.
Simulation for Experiential Training (SET) is a means of presenting learning experiences via a continuum of training devices ranging from simple simulation on a tablet computer to highly immersive virtual reality environments. Recently, CAE embarked on a collaboration with the leading gaming company, Behaviour Interactive, to develop a range of experiential training products which will be transitioned into the world of pilot training in the coming months.
EBT has been promoted as the way forward for pilot and other training in the industry, often contrasted with task-based training. The intention with EBT is to train what is relevant based on industry events and other operational sources of data. SET provides a more limited but also more focused framework as a tool for EBT. With the opportunity for flexible design of experiential training, clever crafting of scenarios should be able to link events with associated parameters by measuring their interaction in terms of time, frequency, patterns etc.
In their work on SET, the authors have identified what appear to be underlying principles for the design of simulation scenarios. As with SET itself, these are focused on the development of cognitive skills and primarily linked to the competencies of workload management, situation awareness, and decision making.
A few examples of these principles are outlined below:
The proposed first ideas for parameters to be used with SET as a vehicle for EBT are preliminary. There will certainly have to be some trial and error to develop reliable parameters for this purpose. Nevertheless, some parameters of use can be imagined even at this early stage of development. With the support of the previously outlined principles some parameters are suggested below but it should be possible to develop more from these as well as from other creative thinking around this.
This section considers how SET can be applied to other so-called non-technical competencies.
Communication (and Cooperation)
Communication as part of SET could be implemented as text protocols, free text and instructor interaction, or with voice/speech analysis.
This competence is more complex and may not be possible to capture in SET scenarios. With communication there may still be some possibility of extracting a few data points for leadership, but they will overlap a lot with those of decision making and communication.
It is imaginable that SET scenarios could be used as a link to technical competencies. If some trainees would be struggling with a SET in-flight fire scenario, it may show that further training on the associated checklists is necessary.
With a focus on providing a "safe to fail" environment and offering the opportunity for exploration, different behaviors could be trained and observed via SET. This could complement other data sources for EBT in a way that would provide important benefits to the understanding of pilot performance and training.
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